Thursday, 31 August 2017

A great backyard landscaping idea

A great backyard landscaping thought is a which everybody could make use of. Generally there are many distinct backyard landscaping ideas and many of which are decent but in order to find the one which is befitting you collectively with which is just what your yard wants might try taking some reading. This article will help you to get the perfect backyard landscaping concept for the home.

A good backyard landscaping idea can be to make use of evergreens. The Particular use of these fabulous trees is likely to do o significantly for virtually any yard. These People will add a stately naturel for the feel of your house although maintaining it welcoming as well as warm. Several individuals similar to to utilize deciduous trees in the yard and additionally this is definitely advisable but it may always be the evergreens that may give the yard the particular construction as well as the stability that it requirements for any excellent backyard landscaping thought and also design.

You have to search for a backyard landscaping thought like the 1 above that will benefit all associated with you yr round. Deciduous trees will not always be gorgeous in all seasons, nearly all perhaps, although not all. Evergreens about another hand will almost usually be wonderful plus they look as lovely within the winter because they do in the sum mer which is the reason why they've created with regard to such a fantastic backyard landscaping idea. The Actual answer to just about any fantastic landscaping design is to become able to discover backyard landscaping concept similar in order to this that may maintain your yard fascinating it is irrelevant what duration of the season it is.

Another good backyard landscaping idea can be to utilize hardscape. This particular may become the use regarding such things as rocks, fences as well as walls. These could make your yard appear very worthwhile throughout all with the seasons. you may have got climbing plants about it in the summer as well as spring as well as pretty trees around it in which can look excellent within the winter. When looking to find a excellent backyard landscaping idea you need to look for other obtainable choices besides just plants. There is much mo re to landscaping than just plants and trees.

Walls and also fences can frame your home beautifully along with with them is actually such a excellent backyard landscaping thought simply because they'll just accent just about all of one's some other fantastic backyard landscaping ideas. They Will will frame the yard as a picture frame frames a new gorgeous painting. look only with that sort of backyard landscaping idea too within your search for the one.

Thursday, 17 August 2017

Prevent Accidents And Gaze After Clean Landscape Along With Tree Support Companies

Some undesirable sound tree trunks may obstruct your own activity, as well as a person need expert Tree service, all through such emergency circumstances constantly. In existing, receiving rid of undesirable trees is actually not just a challenging job, when you've specialists for you to assist an individual with just about all the total treatment. Numerous other compared that will get rid involving unnecessary trees, you might in addition intend to be able to get rid of dead trees with out encountering any kind of issue.

You might certainly not be mindful associated with this reality but tree maintenance could additionally aids one to conserve a range of dollars. These undesirable trees could ruin your current wall surfaces too as furthermore drains using passing time. In case an individual obtain to have rid regarding unnecessary trees too as growing figures of decide pertaining to fort worth tree trimming , next you may well be cost-free coming from investing cash many other allocations.

Simply similar to offering safety and security and throughout addition preventing mishaps, these tree caring also as maintenance firms will certainly keep sanitation, about section of customers. Overgrown and also unnecessary trees will definitely develop the mess, and also this will surely additionally assist within obstructing the appear off your current attractive yard or perhaps excessive landscape. Create particular for you to contact fort worth tree pruning firms, also as deal with a day too as occasion along with them.

It's crucial for one to understand the aspects of working using fort worth tree service. Since these trunks take some moment and effort also as old, pertaining to that reason; a person call for proper devices also as devices regarding obtaining rid involving trees. they tend to be educated well, as well as utilize proper devices with regard to acquiring rid of tree trunks securely.

Not merely protecting against wall surface splits, nonetheless appropriate tree treatment method as well as companies will certainly avoid any kind of kind of a lot more mishaps from taking location. When you've a vintage tree inside your landscape, you can find opportunities that will an old branch could drop for you anytime.

Tuesday, 15 August 2017

Stay distinct involving Accidents And Gaze After Clean Landscape Together With Tree Services Companies

You is probably not conscious regarding this reality nevertheless tree maintenance could much more aids one to conserve numerous dollars. These undesirable trees could damage your wall surfaces and inside addition sewage techniques together with passing time. If anyone obtain to get rid of undesirable trees too as additional decide regarding fort really worth tree trimming, after that you are complimentary from investing cash various other allocations.

Merely such as providing safety along with security too as preventing crashes, these tree caring also as maintenance business will certainly keep tidiness, on a component of customers. Overgrown as well as undesirable trees will certainly produce the mess, as well as this will definitely additionally help with interfering using the appe arance of your stunning yard or perhaps excess landscape. make specific to call fort really worth tree pruning firms, and also repair a day and also period along with them.

Not merely protecting against wall surface fractures, however proper tree treatment as well as companies will definitely avoid any kind of extra crashes through taking area. If you have a vintage tree inside your landscape, there are opportunities that an old branch could drop you anytime.

Some undesirable sound tree trunks may hinder your own job, as well as an individual need expert Tree service, throughout such emergency circumstances constantly. From existing, getting rid regarding undesirable trees will be not just a difficult activity, when you've agents for you to immediate a person with the entire treatment. Different additional in contrast in order to getting rid of unnecessary trees, you can additionally prepare to get rid of dead trees without coping with just about any ty pe of trouble.

It's essential for one to view the aspects regarding operating along with fort worth tree service. Because these trunks are generally difficult and also old, consequently; you call for proper devices as well as tools pertaining to acquiring rid involving trees. That They are educated well, as well as utilize proper equipments regarding acquiring rid of tree trunks securely.

Sunday, 2 July 2017

Social Marketing: making A Personal Connection

If you're carrying out website marketing activities, then it's quite apparent that you are on pins and needles about your website's ranking on major search engines like google like Google, Yahoo & Bing. Online sales reached $3986 billion last year, a 16% increase compared with $3470 billion in 201 This continues to be the highest growth spurt since 2013 and eCommerce is predicted grow exponentially by 2020. However, if we were to sum it up, it is really a place where people will probably be capable of share the interesting things they will find on the Internet. Online sales reached $3986 billion last year, a 16% increase compared with $3470 billion in 201 This continues to be the highest growth spurt since 2013 and eCommerce is expected grow exponentially by 2020. Unlike in traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, and radio, social media allows internet users to sign up and comment in the topics.

If My Space isn't your cup of tea though, there are still hundreds, probably thousands of other great social and business networking sites you can join. Bischke talks concerning the direction his company is headed and why classic marketing techniques usually are not required for his company. They have a $5,294 income per employee compared towards the $9,500 per employee average (DataMonitor, 2010). Link shrinkers are wonderful tools to downsize your links. After all, this social network can be a pure video-sharing platform and may be so since its birth in 200 If this reason alone hasn't convinced you, here are 6 other main reasons why your brand ought to be on Youtube.

Train like You Mean It. In order to complete so KFC could equip its restaurants with nicer furniture. You may also be one of these folks if you are serious about producing money online.

The usual idea when you've a series of videos would be to release and publish one in a time, in an effort to have the viewer a subscription and return regularly for further content. Prior to doing social media marketing, you need to use a clear-cut outline of that which you want to achieve. Running time: 246 seconds.

You might also like: VTG and Video Traffic Genius Bonus . The most frequent cause is that your DNS settings are incorrect. This can be put into practice by creating a television advert which has a follow-up YouTube advert, and also the traditional direct marketing techniques can be followed up with some digital marketing techniques. As an internet marketer applying this marketing technique, you've to build more links and promote more links. When creating video clips to promote services and products online remember to not cause them to become overly promotional, position the URL inside the video and description field, and also provide your viewers good reasons to go to your site.

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Affiliate Marketing - What Qualifications do I Need? By Karen Thomson

As a Celebrity Agent, there's no marketing channel friendlier than social media marketing, which allows someone to , develop, and channel a consistent PR (public relations) campaign to get a comprehensive fan base. Check out the website, www. Whether it's deciding where you can film your piece or what to chat about, it's simple to get overwhelmed and perhaps deterred from posting videos all together. It has uniquely href=""> mirrored the identical image that Australia has project all over the world, relax, easy and comfortable.

You can use a program like Camtasia, or some similar ones that are free, in order to accomplish this successfully. You ca n get a new product and resell it as yours. You will be needing some marketing but in reality it isn't much as compared to regular advertising methods.

5 video marketing tips which will establish you apart of your stuff competition:. In this way, the pricing just isn't affected too much in a bid to accommodate a sizable variety of consumers. And around the Internet, you will not run out of leads.

Train As If You Mean It. * Push advantages EUR" pe rsonalization of messages, high conversation rate, and detailed tracking of customer choices. Running time: 497 seconds.

Title - needs being catchy and a description of exactly what the video is about. Small business users should understand that unlike Facebook and Twitter, the core of the LinkedIn community is towards business-to-business marketing and notat the consumer. You can send video blog messages right to your target market and bypass probably the most vigilant email filters. You can send video blog messages right to your target market and bypass one of the most vigilant email filters. These blog posts consist of content relevant to the videos they .

Article Directory: http://www. marketingtitan. He has worked with a quantity of clients offering expert marketing advice and guidance to clients round the world. Oh, you is not going to become sitting back regarding long however, because the business will start arriving as soon because it goes live for your public .

Sunday, 25 June 2017

How To Landscape A Sloped Lot

While a house in a hilly area comes with a promise of stunning panoramic views of the surroundings, to their utter chagrin, homeowners quickly realize that working on a sloping backyard can be a harrowing task. However, the old adage, "More work equals to better results" certainly holds true in case of landscaping a sloping yard which presents innumerable opportunities for aesthetically pleasing inclusions that would otherwise look mundane.

When planning a landscape for a hilly yard, it is quintessential to include this topographical feature as a crucial consideration when deciding on every aspect of the landscape, from the type of plants that you intend to use to the design of the garden. Preplanning will help you to tackle the more cumbersome aspects of landscaping a slope while yielding astounding results. So, here are some tips on how you can landscape your sloping backyard to create a stunning medley of colors and textures.

Get to know the terrain

Grading th e terrain: Before you draw up plans for landscaping your sloping backyard, it is imperative to study the terrain and the slope to ensure that your landscape will be able to efficaciously handle the drawback of gardening on a slope, while making the most of the natural features of the terrain.

A simple thumb rule to understand how the extent of slope will impact your gardening efforts is that the steepness of the slope will be directly proportional to the water you will need for your plants. Because steeper slopes tend to funnel moisture away from the plants, forcing the water and soil to flow downhill, it is vital to get the slope graded. As a matter of fact, most experts suggest that getting a sloping yard professionally graded can help you to save a significant amount of money on watering the steep terrain in the future.

Visual analysis: Alternatively, you co uld also do a visual analysis of the area. Gauge the severity of the slope and create a quick diagram labeling the steepest portions of the yard; make a note of the amount of sunlight that the different portions of the yard receive. You may also want to include comments on any drainage problems that may be encountered in specific areas.

List the various elements of the landscape: With the diagram in hand, you will be in a better position to place the various landscaping elements in the drawing such as tress, flower beds, fountains, walkways, boulders etc. It is crucial to accurately anticipate the area that the plants and shrubs will cover at maturity so that the landscape does not look too crammed.

Mark the areas for planting: Ideally the trees should be planted at the bottom half of the slope so that they can add stability to the landscape and prevent soil erosion. The steepest sections should have shrubs with deep reaching fibrous roots that will hold on to the soil while the wider plants that will cover large areas at maturity should be planted at the bottom of the slope so that they can create a neat hedge while affording you all the privacy that you need to enjoy your garden.

Preventing soil erosion

Stability and accessibility: Soil erosion is a huge concern when gardening on a slope; however, depending on the steepness of the area, you will also need to give a thought to accessibility requirements such as a ladder or other forms of assistance for climbing. The type of soil and the steepness gradient will also impact the stability of the yard.

Drainage and soil erosion: The direction in which the water drains Sprinkler Installation Flower Mound from a slope will have a bearing on the extent of soil erosion; for instance, if the water runs down straight to the lower ground, there will be massive erosion. Using non porous material for landscaping on a steep terrain will further augment the soil erosion problem.

Solving the soil erosion problem: There are several anti erosion measures that can yield remarkable results such as:


Laying garden paths across the slope

Using boulders and logs to reduce drainage

Building retaining walls with small rocks

Planting specific types of grass

Interlocking walls etc

Using the right types of plants can not only add to the aesthetic appeal of your garden but also help to reduce soil erosion. As a matter of fact, mixing diffe rent types of greenery is the ideal way to reduce the water from draining away too quickly. Plants such as deep rooted shrubs combined with trees like manzanita and juniper will hold the soil tight for the shallow rooted perennial shrubs and flowering plants like clematis and day lilies.

Preparing the ground

With a list of plants that you intend to use to reduce soil erosion, you are all set to prepare the ground for your landscape

The compass points need due diligence: Knowing the direction in which your yard faces will prove immensely useful when choosing plants for the landscape. Slopes that face to the south or west tend to drain faster and will have to be watered more than yards facing the east or north. So, if you are handling a western or southern slope, pick drought resistant shrubs or your water bills may go through the roof.

Ground cover will help: Although for regular areas, bare soil will be adequate to grow a bountiful flowerbed; the story wi ll be different with sloping surfaces where the soil will dry up and erode quickly due to the slant. Use ground cover plants such as Vinca, Sedum and Liriope muscari for best results.

Use good ol mulch: This is a natural and affordable way to deal with soil erosion; also it helps to fertilize the soil. However, it is certainly not a permanent solution as the soil will drag the mulch away slowly, leaving bald spots in your landscape. Another issue is the fact that dry and dead leaves, twigs and branches are not exactly a visually pleasing sight.

Choosing plants for your sloping yard

Ornamental grasses: Local, ornamental grass varieties with their deep reaching root system that spreads horizontally is ideal for controlling erosion. Since grass is low maintenance, you will not have to worry about fertilizing the ground. Some attractive ornamental grass species include:

Little bluestem

Inland sea oats

Plains lovegrass

Texas beargrass
< br>Estern woodland sedge

All of these grass varieties thrive when planted on hilly terrain.

Ground cover plants: For a slope that receives a fair mount of sunlight; prostrate juniper should work just fine while for a shady area, you might want to use creeping boxwood, also known as pachysandra. Other ground cover plants include wintercreeper and periwinkle which also flourish on hilly grounds.

The decorative varieties: Plants that can be used in different areas of the landscape include:

California Privet: This is a tall shrub that can grow to a height of 10 feet and has a foliage width of almost 4 feet; the shrub grows in part sun and part shade producing cream colored flowers. The plant is hardy and drought tolerant so it's an ideal choice for steep slopes.

Japanese Spirea: This is another plant that is a fabulous choice for Sprinkler System Installation a sloping yard; the deciduous shrub grows almost 6 feet tall with a foliage width to match. The leaves grow in a riot of colors from rich burgundy to bright green and every hue in between. The flowers are equally beautiful, an eclectic mix of purple and pink. However, the plant does need full sun and flourishes in warmer weather

Verbena: With its airy stems, the shrub can be coupled with plants that sport dense foliage. The plant is a superb choice for a sunny slope and works well as a foreground shrub. It grows about 6 feet tall with a foliage width of 3 feet. Its drought tolerant and the purples flowers can add a touch of color to your landscape.

Oleander: A favorite with homeowners all over, few plants can create a Mediterranean ambience like Oleanders in white and pink. The plant can grow tall to almost 20 feet with a foliage width of 12 feet. The flowers bloom in bunches almost continuously and are available in a myriad of colors such as yellow, white, pink, red and apricot. It's extremely drought t olerant and easy to grow.

You could also try growing hibiscus and roses on a terrace. Remember to water a slope; a drip hose will be more appropriate than overhead sprinklers.

Innovative planting ideas

Bordered Tiers: Use boulders or landscape timber to create the appearance of tiers. When using timber, you will need to stick the pieces together and drive a rebar through them to hold the wood in place. Use glue to stick pavers on the timber and your tiers will be all ready. Use plants such as day lilies, lavender or other flowering perennial shrubs. You can use decorative stone or mulch to hold the moisture in.

Planted slope: You could also use a combination of flowering shrubs, evergreens and perennia l flowers scattered all over the yard. Alternatively, create neat rows of greens and flowers for a formal look.

A flowing deck: You could also build a series of decks, each falling successively with the slope of the yard. Try building a series of walkways and steps connecting the decks. Use flowering shrubs and solar lighting to create an enthralling ambience.

Plant in basins: Another innovative approach is to chuck the traditional rows of shrubs in favor of basin like formations. Each basin will serve as an exclusive spot for certain types of plants.

Completing the landscape

To add the finishing touches to your landscape: Remove the grass and other growth from the areas designated for the walkway. Use gravel, stone or any other type of hardscape material to cover the surface and pack pea gravel or sand in between.

Use large boulders placed across the yard to create a natural and earthy appeal; the large stones should be placed at the bottom of the slope away from the steep areas for safety. Once all the stones have been placed as desired; bury them one fourth of the way into the ground, so that you get stability along with a natural look.

Finally add the finishing touches with a fountain placed in a central location, you could also use ornamental lights or antique wooden benches or wrought iron furniture to complete the landscape.

By: Ella Schwartz

Article Directory:

Ella C Schwartz is a writer for Hunterstruct Construction, offering design, building, structural repair and home renovations in Vancouver and throughout Southwest British Columbia, including the BC interior and Sunshine Coast. Best known for its functional and great looking sundecks, Hunterstruct showcases its best Vancouver decks on the website. We love building, and it shows!


U. Delaware Prof Blasted for Insulting Student Who Died After Return From North Korea

U. Delaware prof blasted | insulted Otto Warmbier

College Professor Blasted After Saying Otto Warmbier 'Got What He Deserved'

A college professor is receiving backlash for saying that Otto Warmbier "got exactly what he deserved."

The University of Virginia junior Home Improvement in College Station died Monday after spending 17 months in a North Korean prison and being brought home in a comatose state. He had been sentenced to 15 years of hard labor for stealing a propaganda poster from his hotel while visiting the country.

"Otto is typical of the mindset of a lot of the young, white, rich, clueles [sic] males who come into my classes," anthropology professor at the University of Delaware Katherine Dettwyler wrote on her Facebook page on Tuesday.

People from across the country have called for her to be fired, some saying on Twitter that they would not send their children to the university.

The professor said students like Warmbier cry about their grades and think they can get away Home Improvement College Station with anything, including raping women. It is unclear how she was relating rape to Warmbier's case.

"You throw around the word 'white' in a way that would get you fired if you talked that way about the black kids, " a commenter on her post offered.

Saturday, 24 June 2017

Sprinkle Cookies | Recipe - ABC News

From the kitchen of Sprinkler System Installation Fort Worth Jeff Swartz


Servings:Over 8

Difficulty: Easy

Cook Time: 30-60 min

This fabulous recipe has been in Jeff Swartz's family for years and we're lucky he shared this with us! This recipe makes about 75 cookies, so it's the Sprinkler System Fort Worth perfect cookie to make for any holiday cookie swap.


For the cookie batter:

3 1/4 cup flour sifted

1 1/2 cup sugar

2 sticks butter or margarine

2 eggs

1/2 tsp. baking soda

1/2 tsp. baking powder

1 tsp. salt

1 tsp. almond extract

1 tbs. vanilla extract

1 cup sour cream

For the frosting:

1/2 box of confection sugar, (powdered sugar)

1/4 tsp. vanilla and almond extract

big tablespoon of marshmallow fluff

big tablespoon of spry (Crisco shortening)

add little bit of milk , to have the consistency of frosting


Cooking Directions

Makes 75 cookies.

Add sour cream, butter, and sugar together. Beat in both eggs and add almond and vanilla extracts.

In a separate bowl sift flour, baking soda, baking powder and salt. In another bowl beat both wet and dry ingredients together alternating between both. Let dough s it over night.

Preheat oven to 375. Using a teaspoon (or tablespoon depending on preferable size) spoon the batter onto an ungreased cookie sheet and bake for 5-10 minutes or until edges are slightly golden brown.

Be sure to cool cookies before frosting. In small mixing bowl beat Crisco, Fluff, sugar, and extracts. Splash in milk as needed to until mixture is smooth and has frosting consistency. Apply frosting and sprinkles and enjoy!

Recipe courtesy Jeff Swartz.

Monday, 19 June 2017

Fire Sprinkler Recall - CBS News

About 35 million building sprinklers across the country need to be replaced because they might not work during fires, the government and the Pennsylvania manufacturer said Wednesday.

The sprinklers are installed in homes, offices, day-care facilities, hospitals and other buildings, the Consumer Product Safety Commission said.

Central Sprinkler Co., of Lansdale, Pa., discovered some of its sprinkler heads have O-ring seals that can corrode, said L. Dennis Kozlowski, chief executive of Tyco International Ltd., which owns the sprinkler company. The firm has received 13 reports of sprinklers failing to work during fires.

"We immediately shared our concerns with the authorities," Kozlowski told reporters. He noted the deterioration of the sprinklers "takes place over a very long period of time."

Tyco will provide free replacements for all the recalled sprinklers, the safety commission said. The first sprinklers replaced will be the oldest, those showing signs of damage or those in buildings such as nursing homes and hospitals.

The recall includes another 167,000 sprinklers sold by Gem Sprinkler Co. and Star Sprinkler Inc., which are also owned by Tyco, the safety commission said.

The recalled fire sprinkler heads have the words "CENTRAL" or "STAR", the letters "CSC", the letter "G" in a triangle, or a star-shaped symbol stamped on either the metal frame or the flower-shaped metal piece at one end of the sprinkler head.

About 2.5 million sprinklers installed in other countries, most of them in Cana da, are also included Sprinkler System Installation Richardson in the recall, said Central Sprinkler spokeswoman Anne Buchanan.

People seeking more information about how to replace their sprinklers should call the company toll-free at 1-800-871-3492.

Building owners, however, shouldn't shut off their sprinkler systems because of this recall, said Joseph Hirschmugl, a spokesman for Chicago-based Underwriters Laboratories (UL), which provides safety certifications and has been testing the recalled sprinklers.

"People should remember that sprinklers are important life saving devices," he said, noting that the recall is a precaution.

The vast majority of the recalled sprinklers are of the GB or glass-bulb type that contain alcohol or another liquid in a bulb mounted on the sprinkler head. Heat rising from a fire exp ands the liquid, causing the glass to shatter. That releases the sprinkler's plug and allows water onto the fire. An O-ring seal keeps the plug from leaking.

The testing organization said in April that some glass-bulb sprinklers produced by Central Sprinkler had crystallized deposits or corrosion around the rubber seal, which indicated leaking water.

It has recommended that the sprinklers be replaced since March 2000, but at the time, Brad McGee, a Tyco senior vice president, said it was too early to consider a recall or replacement of the sprinklers.

In 1998, Central Sprinkler recalled 8.4 million Omega brand fire sprinklers because thy could Sprinkler System fail in a fire. Those sprinklers, which were installed nationwide in schools, hospitals, hotels, offices and h omes, failed to activate in about 20 fires during the 1990s, causing injuries and millions of dollars in property damage, the safety commission said at the time.

MMI The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed

Saturday, 17 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Landscape (disambiguation).

A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.[1]

A prairie: Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA.

Tropical rainforest, Fatu Hiva Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia.

Tundra in Siberia, Russia.

Taiga (Boreal forest), Alaska, US.

A desert: The rainshadow region of Tirunelveli, India.

A wetland: Viru Bog in Lahemaa National Park in Estonia.

Th e Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier in the Swiss Alps.

Large fields of modern farmland, Dorset, England

A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysically defined landforms such as (ice-capped) mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of land use, buildings and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions.

Com bining both their physical origins and the cultural overlay of human presence, often created over millennia, landscapes reflect a living synthesis of people and place that is vital to local and national identity. The character of a landscape helps define the self-image of the people who inhabit it and a sense of place that differentiates one region from other regions. It is the dynamic backdrop to people's lives. Landscape can be as varied as farmland, a landscape park, or wilderness.

The earth has a vast range of landscapes, including the icy landscapes of polar regions, mountainous landscapes, vast arid desert landscapes, islands and coastal landscapes, densely forested or wooded landscapes including past boreal forests and tropical rainforests, and agricultural landscapes of temperate and tropical regions.

The activity of modifying the visible features of an area of land is referred to as landscaping.


1 Definition and etymology

2 Physic al landscape

2.1 Geomorphology: The physical evolution of landscape

2.1.1 List of different types of landscape

2.2 Landscape ecology

2.3 Integrated landscape management

2.4 Landscape archaeology

2.5 Cultural landscape

3 Human conceptions and representations of landscape

3.1 Landscape gardens

3.2 Landscape architecture

3.3 Landscape and literature

3.3.1 The earliest landscape literature

3.3.2 Topographical poetry

3.3.3 The Romantic era in Britain

3.3.4 Europe

3.3.5 North America

3.4 Asia

3.4.1 China

3.5 Landscape art

3.5.1 Landscape photography

3.5.2 Landscape painting

4 Gallery of landscape paintings from different periods

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

Definition and etymology

Autumn landscape in Rybiniszki, Latvia, watercolor by Stanis?aw Mas?owski, 1902 (National Museum in Warsaw, Poland)

There are several definitions of what constitutes a landscape, depending on context. In common usage however, a landscape refers either to all the visible features of an area of land (usually rural), often considered in terms of aesthetic appeal, or to a pictorial representation of an area of countryside, specifically within the genre of landscape painting. When people deliberately improve the aesthetic appearance of a piece of land--by changing contours and vegetation, etc.--it is said to have been landscaped,[1] though the result may not constitute a landscape according to some definitions.

The word landscape (landscipe or landscaef) arrived in England--and therefore into the English language--after the fifth century, following the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons; these terms referred to a system of human-made spaces on the land. The term landscape emerged around the turn of the sixteenth century to denote a painting whose primary subject matter was natural scenery.[2]Land (a word from Germanic origin) may be taken in its sense of something to which people belong (as in England being the land of the English).[3] The suffix -scape is equivalent to the more common English suffix -ship.[3] The roots of -ship are etymologically akin to Old English sceppan or scyppan, meaning to shape. The suffix -schaft is related to the verb schaffen, so that -ship and shape are also etymologically linked. The modern form of the word, with its connotations of scenery, appeared in the late sixteenth century when the term landschap was introduced by Dutch painters who used it to refer to paintings of inland natural or rural scenery. The word landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed from a Dutch painters' term.[4] The popular conception of the landscape that is reflected in dictionaries conveys both a particular and a general meaning, the particular referring to an area of the Earth's surface and the general being that which can be seen by an observer. An example of this second usage can be found as early as 1662 in the Book of Common Prayer:

Could we but climb where Moses stood,

And view the landscape over.

(General Hymns, verse 536).[5]

There are several words that are frequently associated with the word landscape:

Scenery: The natural features of a landscape considered in terms of their appearance, esp. when picturesque: spectacular views of mountain scenery.[1]

Setting: In works of narrative (especially fictional), it includes the historical moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place, and helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story.[6]

Picturesque: The word literally means "in the manner of a picture; fit to be made into a picture", and used as early as 1703 (Oxford English Dictionary), and derived from an Italian term pittoresco, "in the manner of a painter". Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768) defined picturesque as "a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture" (p. xii).

A view: "A sight or prospect of some landscape or extended scene; an extent or area covered by the eye from one point" (OED).

Wilderness: An uncultivated, uninhabited, and inhospitable region.[1] See also Natural landscape.

Cityscape (also townscape): The urban equivalent of a landscape. In the visual arts a cityscape (urban landscape) is an artistic representation, such as a painting, drawing, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area.

Seascape: A photograph, painting, or other work of art which depicts the sea, in other words an example of marine art.

Physical landscape

Geomorphology: The physical evolution of landscape

Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical ex periments and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.[7]

The surface of Earth is modified by a combination of surface processes that sculpt landscapes, and geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, and shape the coastal geography. Surface processes comprise the action of water, wind, ice, fire, and living things on the surface of the Earth, along with chemical reactions that form soils and alter material properties, the stability and rate of change of topography under the force of gravity, and other factors, such as (in the very recent past) human alteration of the landscape. Many of these factors are strongly mediated by climate. Geologic processes include the uplift of mountain ranges, the growth of volcanoes, isostatic changes in land surface el evation (sometimes in response to surface processes), and the formation of deep sedimentary basins where the surface of Earth drops and is filled with material eroded from other parts of the landscape. The Earth surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic, hydrologic, and biologic action with geologic processes.

List of different types of landscape

Desert, Plain, Taiga, Tundra, Wetland, Mountain, Mountain range, Cliff, Coast, Littoral zone, Glacier, Polar regions of Earth, Shrubland, Forest, Rainforest, Woodland, Jungle, Moors.

Panorama of the Chane des Puys from Puy de Dme in winter. Massif Central, France. An example of how past volcanic activity shaped a landscape

Landscape ecology

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy.[8][9][10]

Landscape is a central concept in landscape ecology. It is, however, defined in quite different ways. For example:[11]Carl Troll conceives of landscape not as a mental construct but as an objectively given 'organic entity', a ''harmonic individuum of space''.[12]Ernst Neef[13] defines landscapes as sections within the uninterrupted earth-wide interconnec tion of geofactors which are defined as such on the basis of their uniformity in terms of a specific land use, and are thus defined in an anthropocentric and relativistic way.

According to Richard Forman and Michael Godron,[14] a landscape is a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that is repeated in similar form throughout, whereby they list woods, meadows, marshes and villages as examples of a landscape's ecosystems, and state that a landscape is an area at least a few kilometres wide. John A. Wiens[15] opposes the traditional view expounded by Carl Troll, Isaak S. Zonneveld, Zev Naveh, Richard T. T. Forman/Michel Godron and others that landscapes are arenas in which humans interact with their environments on a kilometre-wide scale; instead, he defines 'landscape'--regardless of scale--as "the template on which spatial patterns influence ecological processes".[16] Some define 'landscape' as an area containing two or more ecosystems in clos e proximity.[17]

Integrated landscape management

Integrated landscape management is a way of managing a landscape that brings together multiple stakeholders, who collaborate to integrate policy and practice for their different land use objectives, with the purpose of achieving sustainable landscapes.[18][19] It recognises that, for example, one river basin can supply water for towns and agriculture, timber and food crops for smallholders and industry, and habitat for biodiversity; the way in which each one of these sectors pursues its goals can have impacts on the others. The intention is to minimise conflict between these different land use objectives and ecosystem services.[19] This approach draws on landscape ecology, as well as many related fields that also seek to integrate different land uses and users, such as watershed management.[18]

Proponents of integrated landscape management argue that it is well-suited to address complex global challenges, such as those that are the focus of the Sustainable Development Goals.[20] Integrated landscape management is increasingly taken up at the national,[21][22] local[23] and international level, for example the UN Environment Programme states that "UNEP champions the landscape approach de facto as it embodies the main elements of integrated ecosystem management".

Landscape archaeology

Main articles: Landscape archaeology and Historical ecology

Medieval Ridge and Furrow above Wood Stanway, Gloucestershire, England.

Landscape archaeology or landscape history is the study of the way in which humanity has changed the physical appearance of the environment - both present and past. Landscape generally refers to both natural environments and environments constructed by human beings.[24]Natural landscapes are considered to be environments that have not been altered by humans in any shape or form.[25]Cultural landscapes, on the other hand, are environments that have been altered in some manner by people (including temporary structures and places, such as campsites, that are created by human beings).[26] Among archaeologists, the term landscape can refer to the meanings and alterations people mark onto their surroundings.[26][27] As such, landscape archaeology is often employed to study the human use of land over extensive periods of time.[27][28] Landscape archaeology can be summed up by Nicole Branton's statement:

"the landscapes in landscape archaeology may be as small as a single household or garden or as large as an empire", and "although resource exploitation, class, and power are frequent topics of landscape archaeology, landscape approaches are concerned with spatial, not necessarily ecological or economic, relationships. While similar to settlement archaeology and ecological archaeology, landscape approaches model places and spaces as dynamic participants in past behavior, not merely setting (affecting human action), or artifact (affected by human action)".[24]

Cultural landscape

The Batad rice terraces, The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, the first site to be included in the UNESCO World Heritage List cultural landscape category in 1995.[29]

The concept of cultural landscapes can be found in the European tradition of landscape painting.[30] From the 16th century onwards, many European artists painted landscapes in favor of people, diminishing the people in their paintings to figures subsumed within broader, regionally specific landscapes.[31]

The geographer Otto Schlter is credited with having first formally used "cultural landscape" as an academic term in the early 20th century.[ 32] In 1908, Schlter argued that by defining geography as a Landschaftskunde (landscape science) this would give geography a logical subject matter shared by no other discipline.[32][33] He defined two forms of landscape: the Urlandschaft (transl. original landscape) or landscape that existed before major human induced changes and the Kulturlandschaft (transl. 'cultural landscape') a landscape created by human culture. The major task of geography was to trace the changes in these two landscapes.

It was Carl O. Sauer, a human geographer, who was probably the most influential in promoting and developing the idea of cultural landscapes.[34] Sauer was determined to stress the agency of culture as a force in shaping the visible features of the Earth's surface in delimited areas. Within his definition, the physical environment retains a central significance, as the medium with and through which human cultures act.[35] His classic definition of a 'cultural landscape' reads as follow s:

The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result.

A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man."[36]

The World Heritage Committee identifies three categories of cultural landscape, ranging from (i) those landscapes most deliberately 'shaped' by people, through (ii) full range of 'combined' works, to (iii) those least evidently 'shaped' by people (yet highly valued). The three categories extracted from the Committee's Operational Guidelines, are as follows:[37]

"A landscape designed and created intentionally by man";

an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict (or fossil) landscape" or a "continuing landscape"; and

an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, art istic or cultural associations of the natural element".

Human conceptions and representations of landscape

Landscape gardens

Stourhead garden, Wiltshire, England

Jichang Garden in Wuxi (1506-1521)

See also: Landscaping, Landscape design, Landscape architecture, Garden, and Park

The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the Imperial Family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world. They create an idealized miniature landscape, which is meant to express the harmony that should exist between man and nature.[38] A typical Chinese garden is enclosed by walls and includes one or more ponds, scholar's rocks, trees and flowers, and an assortment of halls and pavilions within the garden, connected by winding paths and zig-zag galleries. By moving from structure to structure, visitors can view a series of carefully composed scenes, unrolling like a scroll of landscape paintings.[39]

The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the 'English garden', is a style of parkland garden intended to look as though it might be a natural landscape, although it may be very extensively re-arranged. It emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin la franaise of the 17th century as the principal style for large parks and gardens in Europe.[40] The English garden (and later French landscape garden) presented an idealized view of nature. It drew inspiration from paintings of landscapes by Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin, and from the classic Chinese gardens of the East,[41] which had recently been described by European travellers and were realized in the Anglo-Chinese garden,[41] and the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778).

The English garden usually incl uded a lake, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape. The work of Lancelot "Capability" Brown and Humphry Repton was particularly influential. By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.[42]

Landscape architecture

Central Park, New York City, US, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted.

Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, geology and the earth sciences, environmental psychology, geography, and ecology. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Lands cape architects work on all types of structures and external space- large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while paying attention to ecological sustainability.

For the period before 1800, the history of landscape gardening (later called landscape architecture) is largely that of master planning and garden design for manor houses, palaces and royal properties, religious complexes, and centers of government. An example is the extensive work by Andr Le Ntre at Vaux-le-Vicomte and at the Palace of Versailles for King Louis XIV of France. The first person to write of making a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712. The term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828 and was first used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1863. During the latter 19th century, the term landscape architect became used by professional people who designed landscapes. Frederick Law Olmsted used the term 'la ndscape architecture' as a profession for the first time when designing Central Park, New York City, US. Here the combination of traditional landscape gardening and the emerging field of city planning gave landscape architecture its unique focus. This use of the term landscape architect became established after Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and others founded the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899.

Landscape and literature

See also: Pastoral, British regional literature, and American literary regionalism

The earliest landscape literature

The Djabugay language group's mythical being, Damarri, transformed into a mountain range, is seen lying on his back above the Barron River Gorge, looking upwards to the skies, within north-east Australia's wet tropical forested landscape

Possibly the earliest landscape literature is found in Australian aboriginal myths (also known as Dreamtime or Dreaming stories, songlines, or Aboriginal oral literature), the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples[43] within each of the language groups across Australia. All such myths variously tell significant truths within each Aboriginal group's local landscape. They effectively layer the whole of the Australian continent's topography with cultural nuance and deeper meaning, and empower selected audiences with the accumulated wisdom and knowledge of Australian Aboriginal ancestors back to time immemorial.[44]

In the West pastoral poetry represent the earliest form of landscape literature, though this literary genre presents an idealized landscape peopled by shepherds and shepherdesses, and creates "an image of a peaceful uncorrupted existence; a kind of prelapsarian world".[45] The pastoral has its origins in the works of the Greek poet Theocritus (c. 316 - c. 260 BC). The Romantic period poet William Wordsworth created a modern, more realistic form of pastoral with Michael, A Pastoral Poem (1800).[46]

An early form of landscape poetry, Shanshui poetry, developed in China during the third and fourth centuries A.D.[47]

The Vale of Blackmore, the main setting for Thomas Hardy's novel Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Hambledon Hill towards Stourton Tower

Topographical poetry

Topographical poetry is a genre of poetry that describes, and often praises, a landscape or place. John Denham's 1642 poem "Cooper's Hill" established the genre, which peaked in popularity in 18th-century England. Examples of topographical verse date, however, to the Late Classical period, and can be found throughout the Medieval era and during the Renaissance. Though the earliest examples come mostly from continental Europe, the topographical poetry in the tradition originating with Denham concerns itself with the classics, and many of the various types of topographical verse, such as river, ruin, or hilltop poems were established by the early 17th century.[48]Alexander Pope's "Windsor Forest" (1713) a nd John Dyer's "Grongar Hill' (1762) are two other familiar examples. George Crabbe, the Suffolk regional poet, also wrote topographical poems, as did William Wordsworth, of which Lines written a few miles above Tintern Abbey is an obvious example.[49] More recently, Matthew Arnold's "The Scholar Gipsy" (1853) praises the Oxfordshire countryside, and W. H. Auden's "In Praise of Limestone" (1948) uses a limestone landscape as an allegory.[50]

Subgenres of topographical poetry include the country house poem, written in 17th-century England to compliment a wealthy patron, and the prospect poem, describing the view from a distance or a temporal view into the future, with the sense of opportunity or expectation. When understood broadly as landscape poetry and when assessed from its establishment to the present, topographical poetry can take on many formal situations and types of places. Kenneth Baker, in his "Introduction to The Faber Book of Landscape Poetry, identifies 37 variet ies and compiles poems from the 16th through the 20th centuries--from Edmund Spenser to Sylvia Plath--correspondent to each type, from "Walks and Surveys," to "Mountains, Hills, and the View from Above," to "Violation of Nature and the Landscape," to "Spirits and Ghosts."[51]

Common aesthetic registers of which topographical poetry makes use include pastoral imagery, the sublime, and the picturesque, which include images of rivers, ruins, moonlight, birdsong, and clouds, peasants, mountains, caves, and waterscapes.

Though describing a landscape or scenery, topographical poetry often, at least implicitly, addresses a political issue or the meaning of nationality in some way. The description of the landscape therefore becomes a poetic vehicle for a political message. For example, in John Denham's "Cooper's Hill," the speaker discusses the merits of the recently executed Charles I.[52]

The Romantic era in Britain

The Vision on Mount Snowdon

.......... .......................and on the shore

I found myself of a huge sea of mist,

Which meek and silent rested at my feet.

A hundred hills their dusky backs upheaved

All over this still ocean, and beyond,

Far, far beyond, the vapours shot themselves

In headlands, tongues, and promontory shapes, Into the sea, the real sea, that seemed

To dwindle and give up its majesty,

Usurped upon as far as sight could reach.



from The Prelude (1805), Book 13, lines 41-51.

by William Wordsworth

One important aspect of British Romanticism- evident in painting and literature as well as in politics and philosophy- was a change in the way people perceived and valued the landscape. In particular, after William Gilpin's Observations on the River Wye was published in 1770, the idea of the picturesque began to influence artists and viewers. Gilpin advocated approaching the landscape "by the rules of pi cturesque beauty,"[53] which emphasized contrast and variety. Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757) was also an influential text, as was Longinus' On the Sublime (early A.D., Greece), which was translated into English from the French in 1739. From the 18th century, a taste for the sublime in the natural landscape emerged alongside the idea of the sublime in language; that is elevated rhetoric or speech.[54] A topographical poem that influenced the Romantics, was James Thomson's The Seasons (1726-30).[55] The changing landscape, brought about by the industrial and agricultural revolutions, with the expansion of the city and depopulation of the countryside, was another influences on the growth of the Romantic movement in Britain. The poor condition of workers, the new class conflicts, and the pollution of the environment all led to a reaction against urbanism and industrialisation and a new emphasis on the beauty and va lue of nature and landscape.[56] However, it was also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, as well a reaction against the scientific rationalisation of nature.[57]

The poet William Wordsworth was a major contributor to the literature of landscape,[58] as was his contemporary poet and novelist Walter Scott. Scott's influence was felt throughout Europe, as well as on major Victorian novelists in Britain, such as Emily Bronte, Mrs Gaskell, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy, as well as John Cowper Powys in the 20th-century.[59][60]Margaret Drabble in A Writer's Britain suggests that Thomas Hardy "is perhaps the greatest writer of rural life and landscape" in English.[61]


Among European writers sprinkler influenced by Scott were Frenchmen Honor de Balzac and Alexandre Dumas and Italian Alessandro Manzoni.[62] M anzoni's famous novel The Betrothed was inspired by Walter Scott's Ivanhoe.[63]

North America

Also influenced by Romanticism's approach to landscape was the American novelist Fenimore Cooper, who was admired by Victor Hugo and Balzac and characterized as the "American Scott."[64]



Landscape in Chinese poetry has often been closely tied to Chinese landscape painting, which developed much earlier than in the West. Many poems evoke specific paintings, and some are written in more empty areas of the scroll itself. Many painters also wrote poetry, especially in the scholar-official or literati tradition. Landscape images were present in the early Shijing and the Chuci, but in later poetry the emphasis changed, as in painting]] to the Shan shui (Chinese: ?? lit. "mountain-water") style featuring wild mountains, rivers and lakes, rather than landscape as a setting for a human presence.[47]Shanshui poetry traditional Chinese: ???; simplified Chin ese: ??? developed in China during the third and fourth centuries AD[47] and left most of the varied landscapes of China largely unrepresented. Shan shui painting and poetry shows imaginary landscapes, though with features typical of some parts of South China; they remain popular to the present day.

Fields and Gardens poetry (simplified Chinese: ???; traditional Chinese: ???; pinyin: tinyun sh?; Wade-Giles: t'ien-yuan-shih; literally: "fields and gardens poetry"), in poetry) was a contrasting poetic movement which lasted for centuries, with a focused on the nature found in gardens, in backyards, and in the cultivated countryside. Fields and Gardens poetry is one of many Classical Chinese poetry genres. One of the main practitioners of the Fields and Gardens poetry genre was Tao Yuanming (also known as Tao Qian (365-427), among other names or versions of names).[65] Tao Yuanming has been regarded as the first great poet associated with the Fields and Gardens poetry genre.[66]< br>
Landscape art

Landscape photography

Main articles: Landscape photography, Conservation photography, and Aerial photography

The Tetons and the Snake River (1942) photograph by Ansel Adams

Many landscape photographs show little or no human activity and are created in the pursuit of a pure, unsullied depiction of nature[67] devoid of human influence, instead featuring subjects such as strongly define d landforms, weather, and ambient light. As with most forms of art, the definition of a landscape photograph is broad, and may include urban settings, industrial areas, and nature photography. Notable landscape photographers include Ansel Adams, Galen Rowell, Edward Weston, Ben Heine, Mark Gray and Fred Judge.

Landscape painting

Main articles: Landscape painting and Aerial landscape art

Salomon van Ruisdael, "View of Deventer" (1657).

The earlie st forms of art around the world depict little that could really be called landscape, although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included. The earliest "pure landscapes" with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE.[68] Hunting scenes, especially those set in the enclosed vista of the reed beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human and animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance, is needed, and this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive. More ancient Roman landscapes survive, from the 1st century BCE onwards, especially frescos of landscapes decorating rooms that have been preserved at archaeo logical sites of Pompeii, Herculaneum and elsewhere, and mosaics.[69]

The Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui ("mountain-water"), or "pure" landscape, in which the only sign of human life is usually a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, and landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.

Both the Roman and Chinese traditions typically show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes, generally backed with a range of spectacular mountains - in China often with waterfalls and in Rome often including sea, lakes or rivers. These were frequently used to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists.

A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been that while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres, in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain-water ink painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. However, in the West, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not entirely work against the development of landscape painting - for several centuries landscapes were regularly promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene, typically religious or mythological.

Dutch Golden Age painting of the 17th century saw the dramatic growth of landscape painting, in which many artists specialized, and the development of extremely subtle realist techniques for depicting light and weather. The popularity of landscapes in the Netherlands was in part a reflection of the virtual disappearance of religious painting in a Calvinist society, and the decline of religious painting in the 18th and 19th centuries all over Europe combined with Romanticism to give landscapes a much greater and more prestigious place in 19th-century art than they had assumed before.

In England, landscapes had initially been mostly backgrounds to portraits, typically suggesting the parks or estates of a landowner, though mostly painted in London by an artist who had never visited the site. the English tradition was founded by Anthony van Dyck and other, mostly Flemish, artists working in England. By the beginning of the 19th century the English artists with the highest modern reputations were mostly dedicated landscapists, showing the wide range of Romantic interpretations of the English landscape found in the works of John Constable, J.M.W. Turner and Samuel Palmer. However all these had difficulty establishing themselves in the contemporary art market, which still preferred history paintings and portraits.[70]

Thomas Cole "The Course of Empire The Arcadian or Pastoral State", US, 1836.

In Europe, as John Ruskin said,[71] and Sir Kenneth Clark confirmed, landscape painting was the "chief artistic creation of the nineteenth century", and "the dominant art", with the result that in the following period people were "apt to assume that the appreciation of natural beauty an d the painting of landscape is a normal and enduring part of our spiritual activity"[72]

The Romantic movement intensified the existing interest in landscape art, and remote and wild landscapes, which had been one recurring element in earlier landscape art, now became more prominent. The German Caspar David Friedrich had a distinctive style, influenced by his Danish training. To this he added a quasi-mystical Romanticism. French painters were slower to develop landscape painting, but from about the 1830s Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and other painters in the Barbizon School established a French landscape tradition that would become the most influential in Europe for a century, with the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists for the first time making landscape painting the main source of general stylistic innovation across all types of painting.

In the United States, the Hudson River School, prominent in the middle to late 19th century, is probably the best-known native development in landscape art. These painters created works of mammoth scale that attempted to capture the epic scope of the landscapes that inspired them. The work of Thomas Cole, the school's generally acknowledged founder, has much in common with the philosophical ideals of European landscape paintings -- a kind of secular faith in the spiritual benefits to be gained from the contemplation of natural beauty. Some of the later Hudson River School artists, such as Albert Bierstadt, created less comforting works that placed a greater emphasis (with a great deal of Romantic exaggeration) on the raw, even terrifying power of nature. The best examples of Canadian landscape art can be found in the works of the Group of Seven, prominent in the 1920s.[73]Emily Carr was also closely associated with the Group of Seven, though was never an official member. Although certainly less dominant in the period after World War I, many significant artists still painted landscapes in the wide variety of styles exemplified by Neil Welliver, Alex Katz, Milton Avery, Peter Doig, Andrew Wyeth, David Hockney and Sidney Nolan.

The term neo-romanticism is applied in British art history, to a loosely affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around 1930 and continued until the early 1950s.[74] These painters looked back to 19th-century artists such as William Blake and Samuel Palmer, but were also influenced by French cubist and post-cubist artists such as Pablo Picasso, Andr Masson, and Pavel Tchelitchew (Clark and Clarke 2001; Hopkins 2001). This movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. Artists particularly associated with the initiation of this movement included Paul Nash, John Piper, Henry Moore, Ivon Hitchens, and especially Graham Sutherland. A younger generation included John Minton, Michael Ayrton, John Craxton, Keith Vaughan, Robert Colquhoun, and Robert MacBryde (Button 1996).

Gallery of landscape painti ngs from different periods

Landscape with scene from the Odyssey, Rome, c. 60-40 BC.

Raphael, Madonna in the Meadow (1505 - 1506).

Spring in Kiangnan (1547) by Wen Cheng-Ming(1470-1559) (lower half detail).

Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Apollo Guarding the Herds of Admetus and Mercury stealing them (1645).

Albert Bierstadt, The Matterhorn (circa 1867).

Vincent van Gogh, Wheat Fields at Auvers Under Clouded Sky (1890).

Pablo Picasso, 1908, Paysage aux deux figures (Landscape with Two Figures)

Paul Nash, Wire (1918).

Carl Brandt: "reskutan, landscape",1921 (Sweden)

Emily Carr, Odds and Ends, 1939 (British Columbia, Canada)

See also

Australian aboriginal mythology, Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Aboriginal sacred site

Canal and Dam

Environmental health, Ecological health, Biodiversity, Landscape ecology, Pollution, and Erosion

Grand tour, Tourism, and Eco tourism

Hardscape, Urban design, and Urban park

Horticulture, Garden design, Japanese garden, Persian garden, List of landscape gardens, and Softscape

John Muir

Landscape mythology

Mining, Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape (This is a World Heritage site)
< br>Panorama

Sense of place




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^ Erika Martin Seibert. "Archaeology and Landscape", Accessed December 12, 2010.

^ Malig, Jojo (26 June 2012). "Philippine rice terraces no longer in danger". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 26 June 2012.

^ PANNELL, S (2006) Reconciling Nature and Culture in a Global Context: Lessons form the World Heritage List. James Cook University. Cairns, Australia. Page 62

^ GIBSON, W.S (1989) Mirror of the Earth: The World Landscape in Sixteenth-Century Flemish Painting. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey

^ a b JAMES, P.E & MARTIN, G (1981) All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas. John Wiley & Sons. New York, p.177.

^ ELKINS, T.H (1989) Human and Regional Geography in the German-speaking lands in the first forty years of the Twentieth Century. ENTRIKEN, J. Nicholas & BRUNN, Stanley D (Eds) Reflections on Richard Hartshorne's The nature of geography. Occasional publications of the Association of the American Geographers, Washington DC. Page 27

^ JAMES, P.E & MARTIN, G (1981) All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Page 321-324.

^ SAUER, C (1925) The Morphology of Landscape. University of California Publications in Geography. Number 22. Pages 19-53

^ UNESCO (2012) Operat ional Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [1]. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Paris. Page 14.

^ UNESCO (2005) Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Paris. Page 84.

^ Michel Baridon, Les Jardins - paysagistes, jardiners, po?ts. p. 348

^ Records of the 21st conference of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, describing Classical Chinese garden design and the gardens of Suzhou.

^ Yves-Marie Allain and Janine Christiany, L'Art des jardins en Europe, Citadelles and Mazenod, Paris, 2006.

^ a b Boults, Elizabeth and Chip Sullivan (2010). Illustrated History of Landscape Design. John Wiley and Sons. p.175. ISBN0-470-28933-3.

^ Lucia Impelluso, Jardins, potagers et labyrinthes, Mondatori Electra, Milan

^ Morris, C. (1994) "Oral Literature" in Horton, David (General Editor)

^ Morris, C. (1995) "An Approach to Ensure Continuity and Transmi ssion of the Rainforest Peoples' Oral Tradition", in Fourmile, H; Schnierer, S.; & Smith, A. (Eds) An Identification of Problems and Potential for Future Rainforest Aboriginal Cultural Survival and Self-Determination in the Wet Tropics. Centre for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Participation Research and Development. Cairns, Australia

^ J. A. Cuddon, P. 644.

^ Peter V. Marinetti, Pastoral. London: Methuen, 1971, p.4.

^ a b c Yip, 130

^ Aubin, Robert Arnold. Topographical Poetry in XVIII-Century England. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1936, p. 3.

^ L. A. Cuddon, Dictionary of Literary Terms. London: Penguin, 1999,p.922

^ France, Alan W. (1990). "Gothic North and the Mezzogiorno in Auden's 'In Praise of Limestone'". Renascence. 42 (3): 141-148. doi:10.5840/renascence199042319.

^ Baker, Kenneth, ed. The Faber Book of Landscape Poetry. New York: Faber and Faber, 2000.

^ John Denham, "Cooper's Hill", (l l.111-119)

^ Gilpin, William, quoted in Baker, Kenneth, ed. The Faber Book of Landscape Poetry. New York: Faber and Faber, 2000, p. xxvi

^ In the late 17th century in England, John Dennis brought attention to Longinus' argument for the emotive power of figurative language in poetry.

^ Fulford, Tim. Landscape, LIberty, and Authority: Poetry, Criticism, and Politics from Thomson to Wordsworth. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996., p.21'

^ Encyclopdia Britannica. "Romanticism". Retrieved 30 January 2008, from Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Retrieved 24 August 2010.

^ Christopher Casey, (October 30, 2008). ""Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations. Volume III, Number 1. Retrieved 25 June 2009.

^ Margaret Drabble, A Writer's Britain (originally subtitled "Landscape in literature", 1979). New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000, p. 152.

^ "Walter Scott was the foremost literary figure of his days". Retrieved 2011-04-09.

^ Drabble,, p. 170

^ Drabble, p.91

^ Drabble,p. 166; "Alexandre Dumas": The official French site

^ From Georg Lukcs, "The Historical Novel" (1969): "In Italy Scott found a successor who, though in a single, isolated work, nevertheless broadened his tendencies with superb originality, in some respect surpassing him. We refer, of course, to Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed). Scott himself recognized Manzoni's greatness. When in Milan Manzoni told him that he was his pupil, Scott replied that in that case Manzoni's was his best work. It is, however, very characteristic that while Scott was able to write a profusion of novels about English and Scottish society, Manzoni confined himself to this single masterpiece."

^ Phillips, 1913, p. 160

^ Yip, 163-169

^ Watson, 79

^ Mary Warner Marien (2006). Photography: A Cultural History. Laurence King Publishing. Page 136.

^ Honour & Fleming, 53. The only very complete example is now in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens

^ Honour & Fleming, 150-151

^ Reitlinger, 74-75, 85-87

^ Modern Painters, volume three, "Of the novelty of landscape".

^ Clark, 15-16.

^ "Landscapes" in Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada

^ It was first labeled in March 1942 by the critic Raymond Mortimer in the New Statesman.

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